Juncus effusus
Soft Rush / Common rush:

In traditional Chinese medicine, used for painful urination, insomnia & sleep restlessness, sore throat & ulcerations of the mouth & tongue.

Used to eliminate excessive "heart-qi" & induce urination.
Cherokees use the herb as an herbal constituent in emetic preparations; also, used as cathartic.
In China & Japan, folk medicine for fever, eclampsia & fever sores.

It can be used as a treatment for swelling & urinary tract infections.

In addition, the pith contains lithontripic properties which break down kidney or bladder stones.

Juncus effusus may also be used as an herbal sedative, laxative, diuretic, anti-inflammatory & general purifier.

Fidgetness & insomnia with oliguria & painful difficult urination or with ulceration in the mouth or on the tongue.
It is used in the treatment of jaundice, oedema & morbid crying of babies.

The shoots can be eaten raw, roasted, or boiled.
One should not consume too much of this plant at one sitting because it may have a cumulative toxic effect.
Britons in the Middle Ages used soft rushes a lights by soaking the pith in grease.

                                                                                         Typha latifolia
Common Bulrush / Cattail:

Young shoots have low amounts of minerals. 
A poultice of the Bulrush  stems can be used to stop bleeding & treat snakebites.
Medicinally the jelly found between leaves was a treatment for sores, boils, burns, wounds, inflammation & pain.
Stem decoction can be made for whooping cough.
Stems sliced were spread on wounds, burns  & sores.

Tubers are high in calcium, iron, potassium & carbohydrates.
Some cultures make use of the roots as a poultice for boils or wounds.
The rhizomes are used for venereal diseases & during pregnancy to ensure easy delivery as it strengthens uterine contractions.
Promotes fertility in women, enhances male potency & libido,improves circulation.
Treats diarrhea & dysentery.
Pulped roots were mixed with animal grease & applied to burns, scalds & chafed skin.Root stocks said to increase urine flow, stimulate milk flow & relieve caked breast, reduce fever & treat kidney stones.

Pollen is high in protein.

The fuzzy down was applied to burns & to prevent chafing in babies.
Young flower heads  &  infused roots were eaten to treat dysentery.
Seed down is one of the best things for soothing burned scaled & chaffed portions of the body.
Flowers said to relieve abdominal pain, stimulate menstruation, relieve painful menstruation, non-menstrual bleeding from the uterus, bladder infections, blood in the urine & vaginal infections.
Pollen was used as an astringent or sedative, said to increase urine flow, reduce fever, stop bleeding & heal wounds.

Also taken internally for diarrhea, to kill worms & cure gonorrhea.

Bulrushes can be used to make flour, syrup, or sugar & prepared in a raw salad or as a cooked vegetable.

The rhizomes are edible after cooking & removing the skin, while peeled stems & leaf bases can be eaten raw, or cooked.
Roots are good throughout the year but are best when young & after cattails  have turned brown.
Roots can be eaten raw but better cooked because of its harsh fibers.
The fleshy, spongy rhizomes are dried, pounded to a meal & used as a source of starch.

Young flower spikes are edible as well.
Flour can be made from the pollen, ground seeds & dried rhizomes.
The pollen can be used to make cakes.
The minute nutlets can be eaten after burning off the bristles.
Flowering spikes when young can be taken out of their sheathes boiled for 20 minutes & eaten like corn on the cob.
Flowers especially the male ones can be scraped off & used as flavoring or soup thickener.
Male flowers can be stripped off & mixed fresh or dried with equal parts flour to make muffins, cookies, biscuits & pancakes.
Pollen can be harvested by shaking the flowers in a container & used as the whole flower would be.
Cattail pollen pancakes are bright yellow & apparently very good.
The pollen may also be used as a high-protein food.

Fluff may cause skin irritation, wash thoroughly before eating raw.

Never bring bulrushes into the house as they bring death in the family.
Bulrushes & peacocks’ feathers are supposed to be bad luck if taken inside the house.
Cattails were said to be used by witches for riding like they do on brooms.

                                                                                                             Juncus articulatus
Jointed Rush:

Just beautiful...

Common Reed:

The stem & rhizome are used as medicine.

Can be taken as reed herb tea for digestion problems, diabetes, leukemia & breast cancer.
Some people put reed herb directly on the skin to treat insect bites.
Decoct the ingredients for drinking.
Fresh reed rhizome has fine effects on clearing heat, promoting the production of body fluids & inducing diuresis, while dried reed rhizome is second to it.

Common reed’s sugary sap can be used to treat lung ailments.

Rhizomes are useful to treat diarrhea, stomach troubles, earaches & toothaches.

Young shoots are eaten like bamboo sprouts or pickled.
Dried stems were made into a marshmallow-like confections by North American Indians.
In Japan, the young leaves are dried, ground & mixed with cereal flour to make dumplings.
The partly unfolded leaves can be eaten as a potherb.
A sugary gum that exudes from the stem is rilled into balls & eaten as a sweet. The rhizomes are sometimes cooked like potatoes.
Although difficult to remove from its hull, the grain is said to be very nutritious & high in fiber.

Common reed rhizome should be avoided by those who have insufficiency of spleen-yang.

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